Federalist paper 1 translation

We hear much of the ships and fleets of Britain, and if we are wise, perhaps the time will come when an American fleet can command attention.The last three papers have concentrated on numbering the dangers from foreign nations to which we would be exposed if we were to elect not to exist as a union.But the most common and lasting source of divisions has been the varying and unequal distribution of property.As a way of objecting to what I have said, we might ask, why did standing armies not spring up out of the conflicts that so preoccupied the ancient Greek republics.The second remedy is not practical any more than the first remedy is wise.

It is a waste of time to say that competent statesmen will be able to tame these differing interests for the better of the public good.Religion or morality are not enough alone to restrain any individual, and when people are combined in numbers, the need for the restraint is more necessary and yet harder to find.It can be related to many different situations, and therefore it is a good idea to give flexibility to those who wish to define it precisely and completely.There are still conflicting and undecided claims between several of them, and the dissolution of the Union would lay the foundation for similar claims for this unsettled territory.Open trade relations between the States themselves will advance the trade of each, not only because of the exchange of their respective resources and products, but also for the benefit of exporting products abroad.The national government will not be affected by this pride, and will proceed therefore with moderation and truthfulness to decide on the best means to remove the States from difficulties like these that might threaten them.It is clearly decided in favor of larger republics and there are two good reasons for this.Section II: Advantages of Union: Federalist No. 11 (Hamilton).

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But, unfortunately for us, the question requires a more particular answer.By using the natural strength and resources of our country, under a strong national government that is concentrated towards a common interest, we would confuse all of the alliances in Europe who would seek to restrain our growth.Considering our distance from Europe, it makes sense that the confederacies would be more fearful of each other than they would be of more distant nations.Is it not well known that republics are often governed by a few individuals in whom the people place their confidence, and that these individuals are just as liable to be influenced by their own respective passions.That I mention the importance of our responsibility to do what is right, surely that will encourage all patriots who care for humankind to consider this very seriously.It has long been known that the people of any country (if, like Americans, they are intelligent and well-informed) rarely thrive for many years when they are operating under a lack of understanding about their own interests.

If there were occasional calms, they were short in duration before being interrupted by the next furious storm of upheaval.One national government will be consistent in its policies towards international law and treaties with other nations.Commercial enterprise will better flourish if nourished with the enterprises in the different states.Next I will explain the various reasons as to why I believe this.The neighborhood of States has the intention and the ability to grow their own navies, and they worry that this could threaten their American interests.A republic, being a government where there is representation, presents a different option and promises the cure that we need.Federalist Papers Summary 51: Essay Concerning The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and Balances Between the Different Departments.

Some of the most distinguished members of the Congress are now well known and trusted for their patriotism and their abilities, and they have had a long experience in learning about politics, and they are now members of this convention.Some of them, either because they are less concerned about the public debt, or because their citizens have little debt, have any real immediate interest in the issue.And the smaller the number found within the majority and the smaller the area in which they are placed, the more likely they will cooperate and successfully execute their oppressive plans.Plus, it will also be better situated to accommodate disputes and settle them quickly.The formed it as soon as they could, even as their homes were in flames, and their neighbors were bleeding, and when the hostility and aggressiveness of our enemies prevented calm and mature inquiries and consideration that precedes a wise and balanced government that best protects a free people.Or why is it being suggested that three or four confederacies would be better than one.There were those congenitally opposed to any change, no matter what.Similar impediments occur regularly to exhaust the strength of and delay the progress of the enemy.No state can emit paper money — lay any duties, or imposts, on imports, or exports.

The wars of England and France have to a large extent been driven by commercial interests.Anticipating sharp criticism of the proposed constitution, and active opposition to it, Hamilton grouped dissidents into several categories.Rather, they larger States would quickly try to attain the same status so they could regain their own predominant status.This was surely the touchiest instance of interference in their internal administration, because if there is anything that should be completely given to the local jurisdictions, it should be the choosing of its own officers.Liberty is to division like air is to fire, and without liberty, division instantly ends.The suggestions that Montesquieu was opposed to a general Union of States are wrong, and in fact, he clearly treats a Confederate Republic as the means for extending the influence of popular government and reconciling the advantages of monarchy with those of republicanism.

In Pennsylvania, structure with state constitution resulted in a lack of checks and balances which lead to a weak and unstable state government.Shall domestic manufacturers be supportive, and just how much, of restrictions on foreign manufacturers.The weaker States or confederacies would also have to strengthen the executive branch of government and in doing so they encourage development of an eventual monarchy.In one government, you can find the most competent men, from any part of that Union, and use the talents and experience of those men.Enlarge the geographical area and you have a greater variety of parties and interests, and you make it less probable that a majority will have a common motive to invade the rights of others, or, if such a common motive exists, it will be more difficult for those who share the motive to use their strength to act together with each other.That superior spirit of business which demonstrates the genius of American merchants and navigators, where we find an unlimited supply of national wealth, would be lost to us, and poverty and disgrace would take over a country which otherwise with wisdom could have made herself the admiration and envy of the world.This would solve three problems among us, by preventing our interference in their navigations, by preventing the monopolization of trade, and by preventing us from growing to a dangerous strength of greatness.

History teaches us that a concern for the strength of government offers less of a threat to liberty.There would be value not just in our friendship but also in our neutrality.What would be the probable outcome of this action upon her politics.In the preceding papers, I have explained at length about the probability of incompatible alliances between the States, or confederacies, and different foreign nations, and the effects of this upon the peace of the whole.The regulation of these differing interests is one of the main jobs of modern legislation and it involves the spirit of party and division that is an ordinary part of the functions of government.These are not vague conclusions drawn from supposed or speculative defects in a Constitution, the whole power of which is lodged in a people or their representatives or delegates.There are reasons to believe that some think that the adventurous spirit which sets apart American commercial interests has already created some uneasiness among several of the maritime powers of Europe.Awareness of the ideas and history that contributed to the original intent is crucial to our cause of reclaiming America.

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The Federalist (vol. 1. Collectively these essays—85 in all—came to be called the Federalist papers. some features may not work properly after translation,.